Black Pepper Purchase & Information
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Why Do People Use Black Pepper ?
Oral preparations of Piper nigrum (Black pepper), like black pepper powder, are used for treating bronchitis, stomach upset and cancer. It is also used orally for malaria, stomach upset, for cancer and cholera.
Topically - Black pepper can be applied to the skin for treating scabies and neuralgia. White and black pepper are also used topically as a counterirritant for pain.
In Foods and Beverages
White pepper, Black pepper and pepper oil are utilized as flavoring agents in various beverages and food items.
Is It Safe To Use?
Likely Safe - Oral usage of black pepper is thought to be safe when it is taken commonly along with other food items. White as well as Black pepper have attained Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status in the United States. However, appropriate and oral usage of black pepper is also consider safe when taken in medicinal amounts. Black pepper oil is also thought to be safe when applied to the skin. Oil of Black pepper is nonirritating and normally has no side effect.
Likely Safe for Children - Black paper is safe when used orally in amounts commonly found in food items.
Possibly Unsafe - Large dosage of black pepper appears to be unsafe. There are some cases reported of pepper aspiration in some patients. To rate the topical safety of black pepper for infants, the information available is unreliable. So avoid using.
Likely Safe in Pregnancy - Oral consumption of black pepper appears to be safe to use for pregnant females.
Likely Unsafe - Excessive dosage of black pepper should be avoided by pregnant females. Black pepper may have abortifacient effects in pregnant females; therefore it is contraindicated. However, there is insufficient information to rate the safety of topical application of black pepper.
Likely Safe for Breastfeeding Mothers - Oral usage seem to be safe. However, avoid over dose and topical use.
How Effective Is Black Pepper ?
To rate the effectiveness of black pepper powder, there is limited and unreliable information available.
How Black Pepper Works?
The most effective part of Piper nigrum is the fruit.
Piper nigrum is thought to have diuretic and antiflatulent properties, in addition to its insecticidal and antimicrobial impacts. It is thought to impact metabolic and liver functions, induce sweating, stimulate thermal receptors and stimulate taste buds causing a reflex increase in gastric secretions. It may also have lipolytic effects.
Black pepper consist of 5% to 9% piperine. A Typical North American diet gives around 360 mg of black pepper, which provides about 60 to 110 microMol of piperine. Piperine appears to incresase oral absorption of drugs and different substances. Piperine seems to inhibit both cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and p-glycoprotein in hepatocytes and enterocytes in vitro.
There are some clinical evidences that piper nigrum may protect against colon cancer. However, other confirmations propose that black pepper may induce hepatic proteins or result in liver tumors.
What Are The Side Effects /Adverse Reactions of Black Pepper ?
Orally - Black pepper powder can lead to burning aftertaste if it is orally consumed.
Topical usage of black pepper can adversely affect as eye contact with ground pepper can lead swelling of eyelids and redness of eyes. Even deaths are also reported because of aspiration of excessive dosage of pepper.
How Black Pepper Interacts With Other Herbs and Supplements?
Sparteine - Piperine enhances sparteine bioavailability, which is a constituent of scotch broom.
How Black Pepper Interacts With Drugs?
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) - Interaction rating between black pepper powder and carbamazepine is minor, so be careful about taking this mixture. White pepper and black pepper may increase carbamazepine levels. Patients ingesting 300 mg or 500 mg of carbamazepine two times every day had increased levels after taking a single dose of 20 mg purified piperine, which is a constituent of pepper. Piperine may also enhance the absorption by increasing flow of blood to the GI tract, increasing cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition or by the surface area of the small intestine in the gut wall. Absorption was increased by 7 to 10 mcg/mL per hour. The time to eliminate carbamazepine was also increased by 4 to 8 hours. Although carbamazepine levels were enhanced this did not seems to increase side effects.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) Substrates - Interaction rating between black pepper powder and CYP3A4 substrates is moderate, so be careful about this mixture. White pepper and black pepper may enhance the levels of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. There is piperine constituent in pepper, which appears to inhibit CYP3A4 in vitro. Drugs metabolized this enzyme include (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil), glucocorticoids, antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole), alfentanil (Alfenta), cisapride (Propulsid), losartan (Cozaar), fentanyl (Sublimaze), midazolam (Versed), fluoxetine (Prozac), ondansetron (Zofran), omeprazole (Prilosec), fexofenadine (Allegra), propranolol (Inderal) and various others as well.
Lithium - Interaction rating between Piper nigrum and lithium is moderate, so be careful about this mixture. Initial reports suggest that white pepper and black pepper are thought to have diuretic effects. Because of these potential diuretic effects, white pepper and black pepper may increase levels of lithium and lessen its excretion. Lithium dosage under such conditions should be reduced.
Propranolol (Inderal) - Interaction rating between black pepper powder and propranolol is moderate, so be careful about this mixture. White pepper and black pepper may enhance the propranolol level. The piperine constituent of pepper appears to slow elimination and increase absorption of propranolol.
Rifampin - Interaction rating between black pepper and white pepper is moderate, so be careful about this mixture. White pepper and black pepper may enhance the rifampin levels. The piperine constituent of pepper appears to increase absorption and serum levels of rifampin.
Theophylline - Interaction rating between black pepper and theophylline is moderate, so be careful about taking this mixture. White pepper and black pepper may increase levels of theophylline.
How Black Pepper Interacts With Foods?
How Black Pepper Interacts With Lab Tests?
Serum Drug Assays - te pepper and Black pepper can increase propranolol, phenytoin and theophylline test results and serum concentrations.
How Black Pepper Interacts With Diseases and Conditions?
No information available.
What Should Be the Dose/Administration of Black Pepper ?
ORAL Generally white pepper and black pepper is consumed in a range of 300 to 600 mg.
TOPICAL There is no specific topical dosage of black or white pepper.
Black pepper is the full grown, dried but unripe fruit of Piper nigrum. White pepper is one of the dried ripe fruit of Piper nigrum with the external layer, known as a pericarp, removed. Pepper oil is refined form of black pepper. Indian long pepper consist of high amount of piperine. Cayenne and red pepper contain no piperine.
General Certificate of Analysis (COA)
Specification sheet links below are a standard copy of the COA less the batch or lot number and manufactures dates. Specification sheet can be dated and should only be considered as a general information. Please contact and request an up to date COA if needed for specific updated information before placing order by filling out the contact form with product name and SKU number. If ordering quantities of twenty five kilos or more contact for availability.